Methods to solve bullying or bullying
Although human violence has always been present in our society and is part of the "DNA" of people, when in the media a new case of bullying or bullying we consider how it is possible that some children outgrow these negative impulses from within to harm or mistreat other colleagues.
This aggressive behavior can have disastrous consequences, mainly for the child who suffers it, but also for their family and social environment.
How to define this violence that occurs between equals: bullying or bullying
Dan Olwens was one of the first psychologists who defined the bullying as a behavior of physical and / or psychological persecution carried out by one student with another, choosing him as a victim in repeated attacks. When this happens it is difficult for the victim to escape on their own.
It is considered that in bullying there are three protagonists: the victim, the aggressor and the observer or observers and involve parents, schools and other children.
Cyberbullying, bullying on the Internet and social networks
Cyberbullying, which uses the Internet and social networks, can aggravate the problem because it has its own characteristics such as:
- Being able to harass the victim at any place and time.
- Anonymity and the possibility of supplanting identity.
- Rapid dissemination with a multiplier effect of the aggressions (comments and negative rumors, sending of compromised photos, etc.).
- Attacks posted on the Internet remain over time.
These characteristics, among others, of cyberbullying, can cause aggressions to be more traumatic than in physical bullying.
Bullying, bullying and cyberbullying: growing and growing
Currently the cases of bullying are increasing in all countries, being one of the main problems in the school classrooms. Although the statistical data are not precise, in Spain the Ministry of Education estimates that it affects 4 out of every 100 students.
The Spanish government approved at the beginning of 2016 a series of measures and actions to be developed, although some of them, such as the creation of a protocol and specific training for teachers, have not yet materialized, but the telephone number for the service victims of bullying (operational since November 2016). On the other hand actions and campaigns are being developed aimed at schools to prevent, raise awareness and fight against this problem.
Methods against bullying for schools
Experts and researchers in the field have developed different methods and programs to implement them in schools. The most outstanding are:
- The KIVA method, Finnish, established in Spain and other European countries and the United States is best known for its good results. It is implemented in 90% of the schools in Finland. Part of that "bullying" is a public issue and not private between the harasser and the victim. Parents, students and teachers are given tools to report cases but with subsequent support. Training is given on empathy, how to improve coexistence, using a virtual mailbox to report if they want anonymously.
- The TEI program (peer tutoring). Created in 2002 by Andrés González Bellido, Professor of Psychology, is implanted in public and private Spanish schools. It seeks to involve students by helping each other. The older students "guardians" protect the other little ones by giving them their support through their experience and acting as a reference to give them physical and emotional strength in the face of a harassment situation. The student "tutor" with his performance acquires prestige and responsibility within the school community.
- AVE program. Also Spanish, its two authors Iñaki Piñuel and Óscar Cortijo, propose the application of a test to assess the levels of bullying violence in each class. They believe in "zero tolerance" involving the students themselves to create a culture of attention and rejection of bullying with continuous evaluation and equipping the centers with tools to detect and respond in time to cases of bullying.
- There are other newer methods, but also with good results in our country such as: Lookschool and The Buddy Tool Kids.
Mercedes Corbella. Psychologist and diploma in Social Work.