Childhood autism, types and symptoms
Autism is a set of disorders, known as autism spectrum disorders, which are classified as Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegration disorder and generalized developmental disorder not otherwise specified. The diagnosis of infantile autism, types and symptoms, depends, in each case, on the skills involved in the child and the degree of involvement.
Although there is a list of general symptoms of childhood autism, not all patients with autism present all the symptoms or with the same characteristics. A detailed neurological evaluation together with different cognitive and language tests are necessary to make the diagnosis of infantile autism to define its types and symptoms in each case.
Types of autism in children
- Asperger syndrome. It is a mild autistic disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. The Asperger prevents interpreting the emotional states of others, relating the information provided by the environment and the body language of people.
- Rett syndrome. It is characterized by being one of the most rare cognitive disorders, since it affects approximately 1 in every 10,000 people, mainly female. It appears between 2 and 4 years of age and is characterized by serious delays in the process of language acquisition and motor coordination. It is associated with a severe or mild mental retardation and the process of cognitive deterioration is persistent and progressive.
- Child disintegration disorder. This disorder appears suddenly and is chronic. It is identified by its process of deep regression and behavioral disintegration after 3-4 years of correct cognitive and social development. It is preceded by a first period of characteristic symptoms such as irritability, anxiety, restlessness and relative hyperactivity. It is followed by a progressive loss of capacities for social relations, speech and language, with loss or absence of interest in objects and with stereotypes and mannerisms.
- Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). Some children do not comply Children diagnosed with communication, socialization and behavior difficulties are diagnosed, but they do not meet the specific criteria for the diagnosis of any of the other generalized developmental disorders.
Main symptoms of autism
Although it is not easy to accurately identify a child with this disorder, the truth is that there are some symptoms that make us suspect the presence of autism. The symptoms of autism can vary significantly, not only from one person to another, but in the same patient over time.
- They are not related to the environment. Mothers usually detect it in babies who show indifference, focus their attention on an object or person in a prolonged way, do not respond to their name, avoid eye contact *
- Stereotyped and repetitive movements. It is a characteristic symptom of autism to rock continuously, bang your head and in some cases self-harm.
- They do not recognize themselves. Sometimes, they are called by their own name, rather than in the first person with "me" or "my".
- They lack the ability to play. They do not play with other children and their imagination is limited.
- They do not adapt to the changes. They have problems assimilating any change in their environment, and leaving the routine or the familiar environment causes them anxiety.
- They lack empathy. They have difficulty interpreting thoughts, emotions, tone of voice and facial expressions ...
- Lack of ability to communicate (Verbal and non-verbal communication). Some do not develop language, or tend to repeat words or phrases, do not communicate with gestures or ignore their interlocutor.
- Other symptoms that children with autism may also present are sleep disorders, anxiety, stomach alterations, violent crises, mental retardation ...
Marisol Nuevo Espín